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502 (give or take) short tips on grammar, usage, style

I started an almost-daily offering of a grammar, usage or style tip in April, 2009, and last week I tweeted my 500th tip. Here is my archive to date, which also can be found at my business website,

If you want a big gun, ask for a “cannon.” One “n” is for a law or principle, literary works, or a piece of music. The camera is Canon.

Mackinac Island is in the Straits of Mackinac, which link Lakes Huron and Michigan under the Mackinac Bridge. All are pronounced “Mackinaw.”

The coat, blanket and city are all Mackinaw. The word starts with the Ojibwe and comes through French Canadian, hence the pronunciation.

“This” may mean “next” and “next” the one after, but if it’s not absolutely clear which day, month or season, avoid “next” and be explicit.

“Elicit,” a verb, means draw out. “Illicit,” an adjective, is unlawful or wrong. Think of the negative il- prefix. (Yes, licit is a word.)

Mothers “weaning” their babies can remember the spelling shares the “ea” of “breast.” The archaic “ween” is to think or suppose.

Qatar’s name, rhymes with “totter,” is traditional Arabic. The population is less than 900,000. Capital is Doha. People are Qataris.

While “pervert” is a great verb meaning, essentially, “turn away from the right path,” its connotation demands careful use.

“Perverse” can be unusual or downright evil. “Perverted” is that which has been made perverse or that which is sexually depraved.

To “whet” is to sharpen. It also means to sharpen desire, as with an appetite. But “wet” your whistle. The words are unrelated.

“Hone” means “to sharpen,” as in a blade or a skill, and is incorrectly transferred to “hone in on.” But remember the pigeon and “home in.”

The “heel” of a foot or shoe has a double “e,” like “feet” and a shoe width. And it’s what a dog does. “Heal” is to get well.

“Cite” has at least three meanings (quote, commend, issue a summons to), so consider whether there’s a more explicit word.

A “sight” is something seen and a “site” is where something sits (“sit” is probably unrelated, but it’s a good memory trick).

“Continuous” and “continual” mean uninterrupted. “Continual” alone means recurring, and there lies a useful distinction.

Palate, part of the mouth or sense of taste, ends in “ate.” Palette, the board for mixing colors, starts “pale.” Carry it all on a pallet.

Feel free to “pooh-pooh” an idea, but please don’t “poo-poo” it.

“Theatre” is the spelling with the longest history, and it prevails in England. “Theater” is the more common U.S. spelling.

A modern myth holds that “theater” is a building, “theatre” is the art form. Not so. The place is the older sense, and that was “re.”

“Whatsoever” is a fine substitute for “whatever” when emphasizing the negative. It’s from “whatso,” which also meant “whatever.”

“Faze” is an Americanism, but its roots go back a thousand years. “Phase” is unrelated. Think “period” for the one that starts with “p.”

“Struck” is usually the past of “strike,” but use “stricken” for a sudden blow or misfortune or deletions from your permanent record.

Someone with a mustache is either “mustached” or “mustachioed.” Some dictionaries reserve the Italian-sounding word for luxuriant staches.

“Imposter” is an “impostor.” The variant spelling gets nearly 5 million Google hits, but stick to a double “o.

If I ask you to “reference” this tweet, I mean cite it, not read it. The verb often ends up a mistaken substitute for “refer to.”

A “tussle,” or struggle, can lead to “tousled,” or messy hair, but the related words mean different things. “Tussal” is related to a cough.

Most essays I’ve edited are improved simply by taking the first sentence of the last paragraph and moving it to the top. Try it.

“Any” modifies “way” when we write “in any way” or “any way the wind blows.” “Anyway” is an adverb meaning regardless or however.

“Sloe gin” is not a type of gin, but a liqueur made with the berries of a European shrub, the blackthorn, steeped in gin. Drink it slowly.

A “playwright” is the person who has “wrought” or “worked” a play, as with millwright or shipwright. “Write” is unrelated.

Perhaps “a whole nother” has no correct written equivalent, and it should be considered a mispronunciation: “A whole other.”

Dictionaries call “ahold” a casual or dialectic Americanism. It means “hold.” It’s better to avoid it in formal writing.

“Impacted” is one of several medical conditions involving bones, bowels or teeth. “Affected” is a much nicer word

“Gray” is the U.S. spelling; “grey” is British. Either is acceptable, but it’s better to use “a” for American, “e” for English.

A canard: “No one-sentence paragraphs.” It’s not a hierarchy; they perform different functions. One sentence often is plenty.

“Renumeration” is a common misspelling. The word, like “money,” has the “m” before the “n.” So, “remuneration.” Or you could just say “pay.”

There is nothing wrong with calling yourself “me.” Use “myself” only when the subject already is “I” or “me.” #irepeatmyself

To “make do” with less is to make what little you have do something. “Make due” is a common mistake.

Old-French speakers combined “pro” and “offer” to form “proffer.” Maybe they had a reason, but “offer” does the job.

“Bemused” means absorbed in thought, especially enough to make you confused. It doesn’t mean amused, despite similar origins.

Hyphens in ages are used for nouns: “a race for 3-year-olds” or adjectives: “22-year-old Scotch.” No hyphen needed in “13 years old.

Most dictionaries and AP keep the space in “under way.” It’s something sticklers will insist on, even as we close other words.

Epcot originally was written EPCOT, for Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow. Walt’s plans included a model town.

Winnie the Pooh is Disney’s name for the bear A.A. Milne called “Winnie-the-Pooh” (and Christopher Robin called “Winnie-ther-Pooh”).

Disney World (two words) in Florida contains four theme parks. The original is the Magic Kingdom. Disneyland (one word) is the original park in California.

“Graffiti” is an Italian plural: “The graffiti were everywhere.” But don’t fret. It’s accepted as a mass noun: “The graffiti was … .”

The contraction is for “you all” (not “ya all”), so it’s “y’all,” not “ya’ll.”

“Weak” is spelled with an “a,” as are associated words anemic, ailing, atrophied. “Week” has a double “e,” as does “seven.”

Two words for “skin care” is the overwhelming choice. “Healthcare” likely will become one word long before “skincare.”

“Nonprofit” and “not-for-profit” are interchangeable. I prefer the shorter version (certainly as a noun) without a hyphen.

Computer-speak has made “iteration” more common, often simply for “version.” In math and computers, each iteration gets closer to a goal.

An “iteration” is a repetition, so there’s no “first iteration.” “Reiteration” is a second repetition, but few worry about that distinction.

We tend to use “10 iterations” as we would “10 repetitions” in exercise. It’s better to use “version” or a similar word to be clear.

In Britain, you are more likely to “enquire.” In the U.S., “inquire” is more common.

As much as I try to hulk-smash the verb “impact” when I see it, it’s the adjective “impactful” that makes me gnash my teeth.

“Impact” for “affect” has been having an effect since 1935. @wordnik says it took off in the 1980s. We can but nobly resist.

“Precedents” are set; priorities take “precedence.” Presidents often set precedents.

“Access” as a verb is widely accepted despite its short life. Some still consider it jargon, but the alternatives can be clumsy.

The OED traces the verb form of “access” to 1962; the first non-computer reference comes in 1978 (noted in “Verbatim” magazine).

The Gaelic term “life water” is now spelled “whiskey” in Ireland and the U.S. and “whisky” in Scotland, England and Canada.

“Rye” in the U.S. refers to the grain used, but in Canada it might mean “whisky.”

If it’s from Scotland, it’s “scotch” or “Scotch whisky.” It’s Tennessee “whiskey.” Bourbon is a Kentucky whiskey.

Reach a “consensus.” It’s unrelated to “census,” so consent to keep its trailing letters in agreement: s s s.

“Sensual” had sexual implications by the 1600s, prompting Milton to coin “sensuous” for simply pertaining to the senses.

After Milton invented it, “sensuous” went untouched until Coleridge picked up on it in the 1800s.

“Worse comes to worst” seems more logical than the original idiom, “worst comes to worst.” Either is generally accepted.

“Worse comes to worse” gets more Google hits than other varieties of the idiom. But it’s better to throw at least one “t” in there.

The root of “dual” and “duel” is “duo” (two). The “a” spelling is for the adjective. “Duel,” the fighting word, is a noun or verb.

“Frier” is a variant of “fryer,” which is fish or chicken suitable for frying, someone who fries, or a cooking utensil.

“Flier” is preferred for a handbill or aviator. “Flyer” is common, but most sources say it’s a variant. Both date to 17th century at least.

“Burned” and “burnt” both were born in the 1500s and both remain acceptable. In the U.S., -ed prevails, but -t is used for colors.

The OED calls “burned” “slightly archaic, and somewhat more formal in effect.” U.S. dictionaries tend to call the -t spelling a variant.

I think of “burned” as something that happened and “burnt” as a state of being, but I can’t find anything that corroborates that. Offerings, though, are “burnt.”

“Earth” is capitalized when not immediately preceded by “the” and when referring to the whole planet. It’s generally lowercase otherwise.

If it’s relevant, “Jew” is no less an appropriate noun than “Christian” or “Sikh.” But “Jewish” is the adjective form.

Oxford American says “geographic” is a derivative of “geographical.” M-W calls the longer a variant. The shorter form is much more common.

OED has “geographical” earlier than “geographic,” and the Century Dictionary lists its definition under “geographical.”

“Commentator” is established, so we probably shouldn’t be so hard on the backformation “commentate.”

“Orient” yourself in U.S. English. “Orientate” is more common in Britain, but it brings undeserved scorn in the U.S.

For the process by which something is absorbed, the old past-tense spelling “absorpt” lives on in “absorption.”

“Adsorption” is too close to its cousin to be really useful. It’s the process by which a liquid or gas clings to a solid surface.

“Appreciable” means great enough to be perceived. It doesn’t necessarily mean you like it.

“Systemic” means pertaining to the whole system; “systematic” is a method based on a plan or system.

E-mail is accepted as either countable or uncountable. I can read my e-mail or my 50 e-mails.

The plural of “zero” is preferably “zeros” in American dictionaries, differing with the OED. Most dictionaries accept either plural.

For some reason, one “zeroes in,” dictionaries say. “Zero in” is a WWII invention; its earliest use seems to be related to guns, not planes.

The Japanese Zero was a translation, so called because of the imperial year (2600 or 1940) in which it was introduced.

Ol’ or ol for “old” has been around for centuries; “ole” seems to be a 19th century U.S. spelling. Neither is standard.

It’s still OK to be lightheartedly gay, but context is important. The centuries-old “gay” has meant homosexual since at least the 1930s.

“Gay” for sexual orientation has become the predominant meaning. It can refer to men and women, but “gay and lesbian” is more common.

The OED has a 1914 reference to “queer,” used extensively in an @latimes story quoting a man describing the gay community in Los Angeles.

“Spite” is from “despite,” related to “despise.” Now interchangeable, “despite” and “in spite of” have largely lost their malicious meaning.

“Bass” in music sounds like and comes from “base.” The odd spelling was influenced by the Italian “basso.” The fish is unrelated.

We separate each item in a series of long phrases the same way we separate a series of short items: with commas. #usesemicolonswisely

“Basis” is a thing’s foundation or schedule. “Bases” is the plural of “basis” and “base.” Avoid “bases” for a singular concept.

A group can be diverse; don’t call an individual “diverse.”

“Faculty” can take a singular or plural verb, but that doesn’t mean you can use “faculty” to mean one person.

In the U.S., we drop the “e” when combining “judge” and “-ment.” Some blame Webster, but “judgment” seems to have the better history.

If you’ve been creeping, you have “crept.” “Creeped” is only for when you are “creeped out.” “Crept out” means sneaked away.

“Alright” is nonstandard, but common in casual use. “All right” is the safe construction.

“Altogether” is completely. “All together” is all in one place or time. It’d be altogether cool if you all together said hi.

The plural noun “throes” has hazy roots in suffering and pain; it’s often used with “passion.” “Throws” go on your sofa or shoulders.

“Eminent” is famous; “imminent” is impending. The root is “to project,” the former in a good way, the latter as in hanging over your head.

“Dispel” ideas, thoughts, fears, crowds — things that can be scattered. If it can’t scatter (accusations, attention), better to divert it.

“Wreak” means cause, so the expression is “wreak (or wreaked) havoc.” “Wrecked havoc” doesn’t make sense.

A “strait” is a narrow waterway. Try to navigate it and you might find yourself in “dire straits.” “Straight is unrelated.”

“Strait” has roots in the Latin word for “drawn tight,” which also begat “constrict.” So, strait-laced, straitjacket.

Dictionaries are split, by the way, on whether “strait-laced” needs that hyphen or is one word, so you’re safe either way.

“Seldomly” is no more a word than “oftenly.” “Seldom” is the adverb, so resist the urge to add -ly.

Taut is stretched or pulled tight; taught is what students are. Keep the spelling tight for former; it’s trickier to learn the latter.

Two people point out they’ve seen “taunt” used in place of “taut.” Please note that I’m opposed to taunting those who can’t be taught.

Marseille, the old French city, is commonly spelled ending with an “s,” but not in France. The French national anthem is “La Marseillaise.”

“Privation” and “deprivation” mean states in which necessities are lacking. “Deprivation” is more common and more broadly applied.

“Incase” is a considered a variant spelling of “encase,” though both spellings are hundreds of years old. “Just incase” is just wrong.

“Supposably” is a common mispronunciation of “supposedly,” but it’s also a different word meaning “arguably” (think “suppose”).

“Prospectus” is from French, based on the Latin verb for looking ahead. Plural is “prospectuses.” “Prospecti” does not exist in Latin.

“Digitization” is more common and more logical than “digitalization.” Digitize to convert to digits (as in binary). Digital is an adjective.

“Prostrate” is the verb or adjective meaning lying face down on the ground. “Prostate” is the gland. Try not to mix them up.

“Eminent” describes an important person; “preeminent” means “most eminent.” If you have more than one, they can’t all be “preeminent.”

Despite once being synonyms, “enormity” and “enormousness” are different. Keep “enormity” for something evil or outrageous.

“Myself” refers back to the subject: “I’m typing this tweet myself.” It’s not a substitute for “I” or “me.” #yesirepeatmyself

“Off of” is idiomatic at best. In other “of” constructions, it’s not as big (of) a deal, but dropping can be an improvement.

You “loathe” (verb) a “loathsome” (adj.) thing if you intensely dislike it; if you are “loath” (adj.) you’re reluctant (“loath to leave”).

I would line up for a lineup without a hyphen in the noun. It started with a hyphen, but it was used without by 1926 in reference to a police lineup.

“Agenda” is plural; the singular is “agendum,” but “agenda item” is much more common. For more than one agenda, it’s “agendas.”

“Whether or not” is not incorrect because “or not” serves as a negative option to the positive statement that follows.

But because “whether” implies a choice, “or not” may seem superfluous and often can be dropped. “I don’t know whether you are correct.”

“Or not” is necessary if you are saying something is so regardless of the choices. “I’m right whether or not you agree.”

Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage points to a 300-year tradition of including “or not” with “whether.”

.@BryanAGarner calls the idea that “whether or not” is not redundant a “superstition.”

Style guides say consult a favorite dictionary on whether to capitalize animal breeds. Generally, only place names are upper case.

The Guardian-Observer style guide counsels against using Wales as a unit of measurement (“50 times the size of Wales”). It’s silent on Rhode Island.

Britain is made up of England, Scotland and Wales, each having its own laws and national football team.

“Dumpster” is a trademark for a big trash container. But the brand has changed hands and it’s quickly becoming generic.

Appetites are “hearty;” so is a jovial or energetic person. “Hardy” is robust or resolute. Similar words, but remember “heart” and “hard.”

“Nil” is a 19th-century contraction of the Latin “nihil,” or “nothing.” It’s common in sports scores or for likelihood.

“Stationery” comes from a stationer, once a bookseller who sold from a shop (or station). “Stationary” is at rest, unchanging.

Plenty of restaurant names use “grille,” but that’s the term for a ventilated grating, such as on a car. We cook on a “grill.”

In the case of compensation for a loss, the word is “insure.” For making sure of something, I prefer “ensure,” but either word is OK.

There is nothing wrong with “subtler,” despite what Microsoft Word says. Or “suppler.”

“Amongst” is not wrong, but it means the same thing as “among.” And although it sounds old-fashioned, “among” is the older form.

“World War I” is more common in U.S. and “First World War” is more common in U.K. “World War One” is an uncommon formation.

The AP Stylebook likes World War I. The style guides for Reuters and the Guardian are silent on the topic. Winston liked “First World War.”

“Pled” is still considered nonstandard despite wide use in the U.S. “Pleaded” remains the better choice for past tense of “plead.”

“Breach” is related to “break” and keeps the “ea” spelling. If you use “breech,” you’re probably talking about childbirth.

“Breeches” are short trousers and, by extension, buttocks. Hence, breech birth.

“Expedient” means practical and convenient, not always with regard to fairness. If you mean quick, you want the related word “expeditious.”

It’s Ph.D. in the AP Stylebook, but PhD in the Chicago Manual of Style and all my dictionaries. AP also keeps the periods in M.A., B.A.

“Soldiers” are members of the Army, and Marines object if that word is used to describe them generically.

I am with all ye lovers of dashes, but I try not to overindulge. If a colon or comma works, I hold onto my dashes for later.

“Confectionery” is a collection of sweets or a shop. “Confectionary” usually is an adjective. If you confuse them, you’re not the first.

“That” often is superfluous. But don’t omit it without carefully reading what’s left. Keep it for clarity; omit if excessive.

“Prospective” means potential, as with a prospect. “Perspective” is a view or point of view. The root (“to look at”) is shared.

“Any one” emphasizes the singular. If the pronoun is indefinite, anyone can write it as one word.

So, if you might be speaking of a bunch of people, use “anyone.” If there is but one possibility, use “any one.”

For numbers, “more than” and “over” have long been interchangeable. Many publications reserve “over” for spatial relationships.

“Blond” is the preferred adjective regardless of gender. “Blonde” is the feminine noun, but be careful with labels.

“Collectible” has a Latin root but it’s complete without the suffix. So much for those tricks. It’s enough to make one downright irritable.

Two related tricks help with -able vs. -ible. If you can form a word by losing the suffix, it’s usually -able. If the word is Latin, -ible.

“Collectable” is the variant spelling in the U.S., but preferred in the U.K.

It’s “a historic.” In Britain, it’s often “an” for some silly reason. If the letter is sounded, go with “a.”

For something to be “historic,” it must be important to history. If it just happened in the past, it’s “historical.”

History is not just what has happened, but the retelling of what has happened (which isn’t always quite what happened).

“Antennas” is the common, preferred plural for those things we used to have on our TVs. “Antennae” is preferred for insect feelers.

When you “infer,” you’re using evidence to draw a conclusion. If you’re hinting or indirectly indicating, the word is “imply.”

North America’s marsupial is the “opossum,” even though “possum” is more common and no one “plays opossum.” OED dates both to early 1600s.

“Troupe” is the French word for “troop,” but we use it for a group of performers. A “trouper” works hard without complaint.

“Bated” is what your breath is when you are waiting expectantly. “Bate” is an old shortening of “abate.” “Bait” is unrelated.

Use “that” with restrictive clauses, which contain essential information. If your clause is just extra info, start with “which.”

A “council” is a deliberative body. “Counsel” is advice or a lawyer on a case. Facing a suit, the council sought counsel from its counsel.

It’s common, but “presently” meaning “now” is frowned upon. It can mean “soon,” but the proper meaning is “immediately.”

If you change something 360 degrees, you end up where you started. Making a 180-degree change is a reversal.

Businesses may have a “comptroller” or a “controller.” Same job; same pronunciation. The former is a 500-year-old misspelling.

“Climatic” means related to the climate or weather. “Climactic” refers to the climax of a story or event.

“Die” is the singular, “dice” the plural. “Dice” as a singular is both old and common, but in writing especially, “die” predominates.

You “pore” over your books if you are studying hard and “pour” over them if you miss your coffee mug.

“Taut” means stretched, tense, or efficient. To “tout” is to sell something or try to persuade. Words are unrelated.

To “flout” is to mock or otherwise show disdain; to “flaunt” is to show off. “Flautist” is a fancy-schmancy way of saying “flutist.”

The plural of “symposium” is “symposiums.” Academics like to say “symposia,” but the word is Greek, not Latin. It means “drink together.”

You might find a rare reference to “mongeese,” but the correct plural is “mongooses.” The word “goose” is unrelated.

“Appraise” means to assess, as in value or quality. “Apprise” is to inform. “Apprize” means “appraise,” but it’s rare and best avoided.

A “regime” is a government or, as with its cousin “regimen,” a system for doing things. “Regimen” is likely to have a medical connotation.

“Segue,” a verb or noun, is a transition. It’s a musical term broadly applied. “Segway” is a brand of “personal transporter.”

“Work force” is two words in Merriam-Webster 3rd New International Unabridged, but one in M-W’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition.

On “work force,” the AP Stylebook disagrees with its dictionary of choice and keeps it two words.

Dictionaries agree: It’s one word for most common “work-” words (workweek, workplace). Exception: “work force.” WNW alone accepts one word.

If you “appreciate” something, you recognize its value or you simply perceive it. It also can mean you are grateful for it.

“Appreciable” means great enough to be perceived. It does’t necessarily mean you like it.

“Wis. is the abbreviation for Wisconsin. Wisc. is the abbreviation for wiscellaneous.” [A gem from @TheSlot]

“Anniversary” means a year after; “first” may clarify, but “one-year” is redundant.

To “ascribe” is to attribute, credit or blame. You “subscribe” to a belief, but you can “ascribe” a belief to someone or something.

A “thong” is a leather strip, and the word is used for footwear, swimwear and underwear. Best to stick with “flip-flops” for footwear.

“Popsicle” is a trademark for flavored ice on a stick. The generic, lowercase “popsicle” is slightly more common than the capitalized version.

“Popsicle” has nothing to do with soda pop. The story is that the inventor Frank Epperson’s children called it “Pop’s sicle,” a play on “Epsicle.” In England it’s “ice lolly” and in Australia it’s “iceblock.”

OED suggests the lollipop, icicle combination, so they either don’t know or don’t believe the “Pop’s sicle” story.

“Flack” is a 1940s U.S. word for press agent. “Flak” is a 1930s German abbreviation for an anti-aircraft gun. It also means criticism.

It’s “April Fool’s Day” according to Oxford American, OED and Oxford Manual of Style. But American Heritage, WNW, M-W, Macmillan dictionaries prefer “Fools’.” AP Stylebook also says “Fools’.”

OED’s earliest reference: “No wise man will tell me that it is not as reasonable to fall out for the observance of April-fool-day” (1753).

“Refute” means to disprove, so evidence is required. Don’t use it as a synonym for “deny” (regardless of what some dictionaries say).

Cache (one syllable) is a hidden storage place or a thing secretly stored. It’s not just storage (except when it’s computer memory).

Some dictionaries (oddly) prefer “gauntlet” as the thing that is run and give the “aw” pronunciation as an option for “gantlet,”

Three unrelated words. “Mousse” breaks diets or controls hair. “Moose” is kin to a deer. “Mouse” is a rodent or a computer input device.

For something likely to burn, “flammable” is clearer than its older cousin “inflammable.” If it can’t burn, it’s “nonflammable.”

“Healthy” means both in good health and conducive to good health. “Healthful” is specific to the second sense, but either is OK.

The Greek root that gives us “hysterical” also gives us “uterus,” from which hysterical behavior was once assumed to originate.

“Hysterical” meaning really funny was added to the OED in 1993. Traditionally, it means affected with or inducing extreme emotion.

Lansing once decreed “Michiganian” as the label for people from the Great Lakes State, but “Michigander” is more common. Neither is wrong.

The OED’s earliest reference to “Michiganian” is 1813. “Michigander” in the OED corpus dates to 1848. Source: Abraham Lincoln.

According to @bryanagarner, the Government Printing Office has used “Michiganite.”

“Honoraria” is the more common plural for “honorarium,” but “honorariums” is fine. If you get them, don’t fret about what they’re called.

“Healthy” means both in good health and conducive to good health. “Healthful” is specific to the second sense, but either is OK.

“Stadium” is Latin (borrowed from Greek), so some prefer “stadia” to “stadiums” as the plural. But Latin plurals tend to get you teased.

“Dessert” is related to “desert.” It refers to that which comes after the table is cleared.

If one gets one’s “just deserts,” say it like its kin “dessert;” spell it like its kin “desert;” remember it by its kin, “deserve.”

Dessert, the thicker of the spellings, can make you fat; time in the desert can make you thin. That’s how I keep them straight.

OED’s first reference to “desert island” from 1607: “many desart Islandes inhabited of wilde men.”

Most early references to “desert island” mean uninhabited, at least by white men, and not “deserted.”

“Deserted island” is logical, but “desert island” has been in use since the 1600s, when “desert” often meant “uninhabited.”

On census, AP style is capitalize only in reference to the bureau. Makes sense, since word can mean the process or the results.

AP Stylebook has an entry for “tea party.” The movement is not a formal organization, so it’s not capitalized.

The admonition against starting a sentence with a conjunction makes sense for second-graders. But we’re adults here. Just be judicious.

The “afghani” has been the basic unit of money in Afghanistan since the 1920s. The people are “Afghans.” The main language is “Pashto.”

You can throw an afghan on your Afghan to keep it warm without ever visiting Asia.

“Hiccup” is an old onomatopoeia often written “hiccough,” which came later. It’s related to “cough” only by association. Stay with “hiccup.”

Confusion arises when a plural is being possessed: “other’s heads.” But you can’t mix “each” with “others.” Consider rewriting such awkward constructions.

Easy to mix idioms are get one’s “dander up” (lose temper) and be in a “high dudgeon” (offended). Dander’s also an animal’s dead skin flakes.

If I’m asked to sign a “waiver,” I may “waver” in indecision. To “waive” (relinquish) originally meant to abandon someone as a “waif.”

If something disgusts you, you might say you loathe it. If you seek an adjective, “I am loath to tweet this,” drop the ‘e.’ Sorry, just is.

Complement, a thing that completes (remember the “e”), spawned a new meaning and spelling: “compliment,” an expression of praise.

“Dilemma” began in rhetoric as a choice between two bad things. The “two things” requirement is broadly ignored, despite the Greek “di-.”

Use of “dilemma” simply as a jam or a predicament is widespread, but some will object. There has never been a word “dilemna.”

“Poetic” and “poetical” are equally acceptable. The shorter is more common, but poets and other have been using both for 500 years.

English has no separate plural form of “you,” but other languages do. Does that explain “y’all,” “youse,” “yinz,” etc.

Writing “persons” is a formal way of emphasizing individuals as opposed to a group. But don’t. “People” is the better choice.

“Empathy” is the ability to share the feelings of others. It is deeper than “sympathy,” which is feeling sorrow for another’s misfortune.

“Jibe” is a variant of “gibe,” but to properly taunt, stick with the “g” spelling. Use “jibe” when sailing or quoting Shakespeare.

When things agree, they “jibe.” When changing course on an English boat, you “gybe.” The sail is spelled “jib.” A “gib” is a bolt or pin.

Don’t “change tact.” “Tact” is sensitivity in dealing with people or situations. To “tack” is changing a boat’s course. “Change tack.”

“Proven” recently was uncommon. But the old word survived for centuries in Scotland and now is considered no less valid than “proved.”

“Proved” also is an adjective, but “proven” is now standard. “A proved method,” etc., could cause confusion when spoken.

Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage says “proved” was four times as common as “proven” in the middle of the 20th century.

AP Styelbook says “proven” should be used only as an adjective, and @BryanAGarnerprefers “proved” as a verb.

But it’s hard to argue one is better than the other, as both have solid claims. “Proven” is a fine verb, just not if you’re following AP Style.

AP Stylebook says it’s “wracked” with doubt or pain. My dictionaries call the leading “w” a variant.

Rack and wrack have different origins. “Wrack” as in “wrack and ruin” means destruction. “Racked with pain” refers to the torture device.

As a verb, “slate” differs in origin in U.S. and British English. In the UK, slated means criticized. In the US, slated means scheduled.

The expression “rein in” comes from the rein of a horse. “Reign” means to rule as a monarch. Also, give “free rein.”

Many words are formed with the ending “-mate” (classmate, roommate), related to “meat,” as in shared food. But “running mate” is two words.

Daughter’s FB: “Academic writers spend waay too much time telling you what they’re going to say or summarizing what they’ve already said.”

AP says use “each other” for two people, “one another” for more. The “rule” has been around for 190 years, but it is widely ignored in …

… practice and by dictionaries. If you don’t follow AP style, do as you please. But know there are worse fictitious rules out there.

AP Stylebook starts the week with a new entry on “hard line.” Hard-liner (noun) take a hard line (noun) on a hard-line (adjective) approach.

All major style guides say do not capitalize seasons. (The usual exceptions apply, as well as when it is part of a publication date.)

“Colored” is a derogatory label in the U.S. but the accepted term for mixed racial origin in South Africa. Give context if you must use it.

Singular or plural for data? Yes. It’s the plural of datum, but it’s commonly used as a collective noun. Academics usually go plural.

A covered entrance to a theater is a “marquee,” which also is a top act or something preeminent. “Marquis” is a title for a nobleman.

If you’re tempted to spell “definitely” with an a, remember the root “define.” And “definitive” is not a synonym; it means “conclusive.”

“Archaic” means old and out of fashion. An “anachronism” is something inappropriate for the time period. “Arcane” means understood by few

Lowering a flag to honor the dead is a naval tradition. On land, however, “half-mast” will earn you rebuke from pedants. So, “half-staff.”

“Incidence” describes the frequency of “incidents.” Each occurrence is an “instance” of an “incident.” “Incidences” is best avoided.

It’s “a while” only if it follows “in” or “for” — that’s when it acts as a noun. “Awhile” is an adverb.

AP Stylebook changed its “United Brotherhood of Carpenters” entry to delete “and Joiners” from the name. The union has yet to follow suit.

A “moot” once was a meeting. The moot courts in law schools, featuring trials with only academic significance, influenced the later senses.

A “moot point” in the U.S. has come to mean one that is unsettled but no longer significant. In Britain, the meaning remains “debatable.”

“Led,” past-tense of “lead,” sounds the same as “lead,” the dense metal. Lighten up and remember “led” is spelled as it sounds.

I prefer “communication,” reserving the plural form for when it’s needed. But it’s so commonly made plural, it doesn’t sound wrong.

“Temblor” means “earthquake.” It’s Spanish (temblor de tierra) for tremble or shake. “Tremblor” is a variant that’s best avoided.

Weigh a diamond in “carats” (200 mg each), but the purity of the band is measured in “karats” (up to 24). Shift-6 gets you a “caret.”

AP Stylebook is following American Heritage, but no others, with a new entry on “waitlist” as a noun and “wait-list” as the verb form.

The hyphen in “strait-laced” is a point of dispute among dictionaries and guides. It seems to be vanishing; you’re probably safe either way.

A “strait” is a waterway that connects bigger bodies of water. So, “dire straits.” Also, strait-laced, straitjacket, not “straight-.”

OED suggests “up” for “raise” began as an early 20th century U.S. gambling term. It has been a verb for hundreds of years.

For nonseed words ending with a seed sound, “supersede” is unique. Three end in “ceed” and start “ex,” “pro,” and “suc.” Otherwise, “-cede.”

“Cede” words start ac-, con-, inter-, pre-, re-, and se-. And then there is “cede.” Some “seed” words: ani-, lin-, poppy-, rape-, and bird-.

Haiti shares island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic. Languages are Creole and French. Capital, near epicenter, is Port-au-Prince.

“Seldomly” is no more a word than “oftenly.” “Seldom” is the adverb, so resist the urge to add -ly.

There is no word “pronounciation.” Drop the second “o” and pronounce it that way, too: “pronunciation.” (But, pronouncing, pronouncer, etc.)

Your mom is Mom; a generic mom is mom. Capitalize when you are using it as a substitute for a proper name

“Populace” is a noun referring to a group of people; “populous” is an adjective meaning densely populated.

Addendum to earlier tweet: If you’re singing the Robert Johnson song, it’s “cross road.”

You are “at a crossroads” if faced with choices. A “crossroad” is a road that crosses another. Keep it plural for an intersection.

“Head cold” is written as two words, but it’s easier for me to say it as one. It’s sometimes followed by a “chest cold.”

Florida has many “keys” or low-lying coastal islands. The capitalized “Florida Keys” are those that stretch south of the Florida mainland.

We visited several “keys” on vacation (Siesta Key, St. Armand’s and Lido keys), but we didn’t go to “the Keys.”

“A Xmas” or “an Xmas”? Depends how you expect your readers to interpret it: Christmas or “ex”mas. Google hits are divided.

If you’re not ready for Christmas, don’t fret: The 12 days of Christmas start Friday and end on Jan. 5, the eve of the Epiphany.

Ambivalent means you can’t decide between two choices. The “bi” in the middle means “two.” It does not mean you don’t care.

If you’re writing a review, it’s up to you to translate: “Stage left” and “stage right” are from the point of view of the performers.

“Right on” started in black America, certainly by the 1960s, possibly earlier. It was widespread by the ’70s.

If you’re seeking votes or soliciting opinions, the word is “canvass.” The sturdy cloth is “canvas” with one ‘s.’

Lengthy lists don’t warrant semicolons unless individual items in the list include commas. If it’s hard to follow, consider bullets.

“Media” is the plural of “medium,” but it’s usually used as a singular mass noun. Either way is considered standard.

I would avoid “more perfect,” and yet there it is in the U.S. Constitution. Ungrammatical? It’s accepted as an intensifier.

Intensifiers, such as “really” in “really tired,” sometimes defy logic for emphasis. Do this and risk being told you couldn’t be more wrong.

“Spit and image” is the older term, but “spitting image” is much more common. If it’s a corruption, it’s established itself. Avoid “splitting image.”

You sometimes see “gonna” and the like written to emphasize a person’s style of speech, which can be a dangerous thing.

It’s spelled “going to” even when it’s pronounced “gonna.” Never say never, but think very hard before using it in text.

A jury is “impaneled,” dictionaries agree. They call “empanel” a variant. Both spellings are common.

An old mnemonic but a good mnemonic: First you graduate, then you congratulate. D comes before T. Congrats, grads.

“Lightning” once was “lightening.” We no longer use the middle ‘e.’ The meanings of “lightening” include the drop late in pregnancy.

An e-mail subscription list sometimes is called a “Listserv,” but that’s a trademark for an e-mail list program. Call it an e-mail list.

“Expedient” means practical and convenient, not always with regard to fairness. If you mean quick, you want the related word “expeditious.”

“Stationery” comes from a stationer, once a bookseller with a shop (or station). Spelling mnemonic: StationEry needs pen, envelope.

In the case of compensation for a loss, the word is “insure.” For making sure of something, I prefer “ensure,” but either word is OK.

AP updated its style on Taser, a trademark formed from “Thomas A. Swift’s Electric Rifle.” AP says avoid “tasered.” Generic is “stun gun.”

Words on back of my biz card, pt. 1b: accommodate, acquire, apparent, argument, amateur, breathe, bellwether, calendar, category, ceiling

If it’s mechanical, it’s a “dryer.” But if you seek a comparison, the spelling is “drier.” “My new dryer gets things drier.”

“Gifted” as a verb goes back hundreds of years, OED says. I tend to avoid it anyway.

We may show weight in kilograms, but that’s really a unit of mass. A pound is a weight, not a unit of mass. Weight varies; mass is constant.

Now spammers have made “allot” a trending topic. To “allot” is to apportion or give. Spammy pitches should promise “a lot” more followers.

X, the Greek letter “chi,” is rendered in the Latin alphabet as “kh” or “ch.” Chi has long been used for “Christ,” thus “Xmas.”

There may be “do or die” situations, but “do and die” correctly quotes Tennyson. “Theirs not to reason why, theirs but to do and die.”

For which letter to double in the Philippines, remember King Philip pined for those islands. The people and language are Filipino.

A troop is a group. Using it for an individual is tempting, except it’s wrong and often confusing.

Best is to be specific. Soldiers are in the Army. “Member of the military” is clunky but accurate. “Trooper” works, too.

Don’t fear “me.” You are not about to say “Joe and me are tweeting.” But in other cases, “me” is fine. Never say “between you and I.”

“Reportage” is not wrong. “Reporting” is much more common and is probably the better choice.

Adjectives in “future plans” and “past experiences” suggest things are not “next” or “just now.” Usually, no such distinction is necessary.

If the meaning is not clear, there are better approaches than inserting sloppy redundancies. The best method is to be specific.

Feel free to make projections, but don’t project “future” revenue, needs, costs, etc. — it’s redundant.

“Future plans” gets 4.3 million Google hits. That’s more than 30 million keystrokes that could have been saved.

The plural of the car is “Priuses.” It’s of Latin origin related to “prior,” but that’s immaterial. It’s now a noun and an -es makes it plural.

ZIP code is commonly written “zip code,” and dictionary entries reflect this. AP and the U.S. Postal Service capitalize the acronym.

Adding a -ly to a numbered list (firstly, secondly) is fussy, but acceptable. But don’t start with “first” and follow with “secondly.”

I am with all ye lovers of dashes, but I try not to overindulge. If a colon or comma works, I hold onto my dashes for later.

“That” often is superfluous. But don’t omit it without carefully reading what’s left. Keep it in for clarity; omit if excessive.

Regarding numbers, “more than” and “over” have long been interchangeable. But many newspapers reserve “over” for spatial relationships.

“Paparazzi” is the plural form of “paparazzo.” A celebrity photographer is so called because of the character Paparazzo in “La Dolce Vita.”

Brass sections do not include euphonia. “Euphonium” is a Latin-sounding 19th century word derived from Greek. The plural is “euphoniums.”

“A historic.” In Britain, it’s often “an” for some silly reason. If the letter is sounded, go with “a.”

“Alum” is gaining ground as a nonsexist alternative for an alumnus or alumna. It’s not standard. Never use “alums” for the plural “alumni.”

Schools have “alumni.” An individual is either an “alumnus” (male) or an “alumna” (female). The plural of “alumna” is “alumnae.”

OED says alumni is “chiefly U.S.” The word means “foster child,” so Latin is little help.

Ships “founder,” meaning they take on water and sink. A sailor on the doomed ship might “flounder,” or thrash about trying to stay afloat.

Just read about a controlled burn of “as many as 1,850 acres.” Unless they’re burning in 1-acre increments, it should be “as much as … .”

Most dictionaries prefer the spelling “judgment,” calling “judgement” a variant. The OED is fine with either, and Brits favor “judgement.”

We use an “auger” to make holes. (The tool used to be “a nauger,” but we got confused.) An “augur” is a soothsayer, hence “augurs well.”

Avoid starting a sentence with “Obviously.” Instead use: “It is a truth universally acknowledged …”

Obviously, “needless to say” is clearly unnecessary, but that certainly goes without saying, as you, of course, undoubtedly know.

A “ton” or “short ton” is 2,000 lbs. in the U.S. and Canada. “Tonnage” refers to carrying capacity, not weight.

For trucks, the tonnage designation originally referred to carrying capacity, but it now refers to vehicle class.

A “tonne” is a “metric ton,” 1,000 kg or 2,205 lbs, just shy of a “British ton” or “long ton,” 2,240 lbs.

An “initiative” is citizen- (or, face it, special interest-) initiated legislation. A “referendum” is a question referred to a popular vote.

The passive “comprised of” invites excessive scorn. To be safe, a thing either is composed of its parts or it comprises its parts.

Three dots together constitute an ellipsis, a single punctuation mark. The term for one is a suspension point, dot or period.

“Entitled” has always meant “given a title.” AP and others prefer “titled,” and I agree. But you are entitled to use either.

Taps, which signals lights out and is played at military funerals, is a bugle call; it’s not a song title. It’s simply written: taps.

In honor of the @GrammarGirl book release, from Week 1: “Supposably” is the adverb form of “supposable.” You probably mean “supposedly

”Adviser” seems to be the more well-regarded spelling in the U.S., but “advisor” is nearly as common. The adjective is always “advisory.”

From “Garner’s Modern American Usage” (confirmed nowhere else), today I learned something may be “abbreviable,” not “abbreviatable.”

The prefix “re” rarely takes a hyphen. Some dictionaries dislike a double letter, so “re-entry.” Hyphenate to avoid confusion: “re-form.”

”Sneaked” is the proper past tense of “sneak,” but the informal “snuck” is a common alternative. It’s a 19th century U.S. invention.

Dessert, the thicker of the spellings, can make you fat; time in the desert can make you thin. That’s how I keep them straight.

Although shops often have “re-opening” events, there is no confusion with the preferred spelling, “reopening.”

If one gets one’s “just deserts,” say it like its kin “dessert;” spell it like its kin “desert;” remember it by its kin, “deserve.”

“Myriad” is a noun or adjective (“myriad ideas”), but don’t use it for merely “many.” It means countless or an extremely big number.

”Stanch” the flow of blood. Although some accept “staunch” as a variant, that word is best reserved for when you mean loyal and constant.

”Pakistan,” a word coined in 1933, is a noun. “Pakistani” is a noun — for the people — or an adjective. It’s not a language

A “mantle” is a robe; you might figuratively wear a “mantle” as an honor or office. Put your trophies on the “mantel,” over the fireplace.

If you see “no holes barred,” ask why would anyone bar a hole anyway? Think wrestling. It’s “no holds barred

Scotch is the drink (neat, thank you); the people are Scottish or Scots. A Scottie is a terrier.

“Proscribe” is to forbid; “prescribe” is to establish rules. Language rules are descriptive, prescriptive, sometimes proscriptive.

”Beside” means physically next to. “Besides” means “other than.” They used to be interchangeable, but they’ve grown distinct.

In America, we prefer to go “toward” something. Brits go “towards.” Neither is incorrect; even Old English had it both ways.

“Octopi” is a Latinized plural form of a Greek word. The correct plural is “octopuses.”

Declare “hear, hear” if you agree (not “here, here”). The phrase originated in the British Parliament as “hear him, hear him.”

I vote we drop “Lady” in school sports team nicknames. Unflattering constructions aside, it relegates the teams to secondary status.

“Time frame” probably is destined to become one word, but not anytime soon. Keep it two words, dictionaries say.

The common spelling is “cesarean” section, but what about the salad? Stick with Caesar salad, the spelling inventor Caesar Cardini gave it.

Yes, a fish can jump. Normally we think of jumping as involving legs, but it doesn’t have to. The OED on “jump” even mentions fish.

“Peek,” a quick, furtive look, comes from “peep” (as in show). Both have a double “e.” “Peak,” a point or mountain top, is unrelated.

The Associated Press this week decided it is time to go upper case on International Space Station. NASA and everyone else uses capitals.

If there is a trending punctuation mark, it’s the dash. Avoid its overexposure by reserving it for cases where comma or colon won’t suffice.

“Lunch” started out a a chunk, as in cheese or bread. “Luncheon” may be from a Spanish word meaning slice. They came to mean the same thing with “lunch” thought vulgar.

“Lunch” probably was a shortening, reinforced by its earlier meaning. Now, “luncheon” is considered a formal lunch.

If you do something “like the dickens,” keep “dickens” lower case. The euphemism for “devil” precedes “The Pickwick Papers” by 250 years.

For something to be “historic,” it must be important to history. If it just happened in the past, it’s “historical.”

North America’s marsupial is the “opossum,” even though “possum” is more common and no one “plays opossum.” OED dates both to early 1600s.

If you see a reference to the INS (Immigration and Naturalization Service) delete it. It’s now Immigration and Customs Enforcement, or ICE.

“Constitution” is capitalized if referring to the one hashed out 222 years ago. Otherwise, AP says, cap C only with state or nation’s name.

Use “that” with restrictive clauses, which contain essential information. If your clause is just extra info, start with “which.” (@annieo)

“Every two weeks” is probably the preferred usage, but “biweekly” is so ambiguous it’s best abandoned. Be explicit.

It’s common, but “presently” meaning “now” is frowned upon. It can mean “soon,” but the proper use is for “immediately.”

Businesses may have a “comptroller” or a “controller.” Same job; same pronunciation. The former is a 500-year-old misspelling.

Style rules regarding dates don’t apply to an understood term such as Sept. 11 or 9/11. AP accepts either on first reference.

“Congresswoman” or “-man” are accepted as substitutes for “U.S. representative,” but “Congress” refers to both the House and the Senate.

Do not call charter schools “taxpayer-funded private schools.” Governance models vary, but all charter schools are public schools.

Summer isn’t over until the autumnal equinox, Sept. 22 this year in the northern hemisphere, when day and night are equal length. Carry on.

Today’s egalitarian style guides say don’t capitalize “president” when it stands alone. Same with “pope.” Caps before a name only.

“Since” is not wrong as a conjunction meaning “because.” Just be careful: It can be confusing if time is involved.

Sticklers insist that “due to” modifies a noun phrase, “because of” modifies a verb phrase. Most sources say don’t sweat it.

You “pore” over your books if you are studying hard and “pour” over them if you miss your coffee mug.

If you have prepared all your “syllabi,” you are in the minority. Major sources agree “syllabuses” is the more common plural form.

The word “syllabus” comes from a letter from Cicero, who was quoting a Greek word, combined with a misinterpretation by scholars.

“This differs from That.” With an adjective instead of a verb, “This is different from That. “Avoid the casual “different than.”

“Downpayment” wins the Google popularity contest, but all my sources are emphatic: “Down payment” is two words.

To “flout” is to mock or otherwise show disdain; to “flaunt” is to show off. “Flautist” is a fancy-schmancy way of saying “flutist.”

“Barred” owl sometimes is confused with less-common “barn” owl. Former has a bar pattern on its chest. Latter likes barns.

“Curricula” remains the preferred plural of “curriculum,” but “curriculums” is a common alternative.

“Amoral” means outside the scope of morality or lacking a sense of morals. “Immoral” suggests you know what you’re doing.

AP says “mic,” not “mike.” But OED has references to “mike” dating to 1920s, “mic” to 1960s.

Common though the error may be, avoid “criteria” as a singular. If you have one thing, all the guides say it’s a “criterion.”

“Principle” is a rule or belief. For people, money and the primary thing, it’s “principal.” In school they told me it’s princiPAL.

A “tenet” is a principle, a “tenant” a renter. Confusion may arise from Latin root’s third-person form, “tenent.” Use English, not Latin.

AP Stylebook starts the week with a new entry on “hard line.” Hard-liner (noun) take a hard line (noun) on a hard-line (adjective) approach.

Don’t say “margin” if you mean “ratio.” Ratio is the relationship between two numbers; margin is the difference: 2-1 ratio; 12-point margin.

Either “optimum” or “optimal” is fine as an adjective. If it’s used as a noun, use “optimum.” OED dates both to 1890s.

I expected “optimum” to be more popular than “optimal,” but Google says “optimal” wins by a landslide. But in 20 years of Columbus Dispatch archives, “optimum” beats “optimal” in a 5-3 ratio.

Last thought on optimum vs. optimal, @BryanAGarner prefers optimal, but he has a soft spot for otherwise superfluous words.

AP Stylebook says caps on Cash for Clunkers nickname for Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save Act (aka Car Allowance Rebate System).

From Latin’s “restaurare” comes “restore,” “restaurant” and “restaurateur.” Some sources accept the “restauranteur” mistake as a variant.

Capitalize: regions, not compass points; titles before name, not after or alone.; Congress. So, North America, but northern America; Chairman Bill Gates, but Bill Gates, Microsoft chairman.

AP decided “flu-like” takes a hyphen, an exception to its style of hyphenating the suffix only after proper nouns or to avoid a triple “l.”

If you feel bad, don’t say “badly” unless you have a poor sense of touch. It’s the same as with smelling bad or smelling badly.

There is just one moon and one golden sun, but it is OK to also use “moon” for a satellite of another planet. Reserve “sun” for our star.

“Gender” is now a stand-in for “sex,” usually for social or cultural differences. “Sex” is still OK, especially for biological differences.

“They” as a singular pronoun has utility, commonality and even history on its side. Avoid it anyway in formal writing.

If you’re talking about a possible past event, use “might” not “may.” The two are pretty interchangeable in present and future tense.

“Average” usually refers to the mean: sum divided by quantity. Median average is the midpoint in a series; mode is the most common number.

The overused “proactive” may make us cringe, but it does serve its purpose. There is no such thing as a “proactive” response, however.

“Incentivize” is 40 years old and dictionaries accept it. That doesn’t mean you have to use it. Don’t use it if you mean “motivate.”

You might have to “raze” a barn your grandfather “raised.” “Raze” (related to “razor”) and “raise” are homonyms and antonyms

“Fewer than” refers to units of countable things. It’s “less than 10 miles” because the concept is distance, not individual miles.

AP keeps “cell phone” two words, agreeing with all my dictionaries except Webster’s New World. NYT and LAT use one.

Seeking agreement on health care? AP says two words, as do M-W , American Heritage and APA. Webster’s, Oxford American and Reuters say one.

Health care debate continues: NYT and W-P, two words; the Guardian, LA Times and Christian Science Monitor, one word.

GED, traditionally general equivalency degree or diploma, is trademarked as General Educational Development. AP now goes with the trademark.

Call her Justice Sonia Sotomayor if she is sworn in as one of eight associate justices. John Roberts is chief justice of the United States.

Most newspapers once capitalized “the Pope,” and some still do. But convention now is to lowercase “pope” except in front of a name.

The one-word spelling “anytime” seems to be a 20th century American invention that most sources now consider standard to mean “at any time.”

The odd spelling of “racquetball” was adopted in 1969 for the American game then known as “paddle rackets.” It uses a “racket” or “racquet.”

If you “allude” to something, you make an indirect or passing reference. To “refer” is to make a specific reference.

AP Stylebook lacks a “groundwater” entry, deferring to Webster’s, which says one word. Other dictionaries agree.

AP now says “carpool” is one word as verb, two as noun. Webster’s and Merriam-Webster agree. Other dictionaries accept one word for either.

“Independence Day” is more descriptive, but “Fourth of July” is the name given in the 1938 act that extended pay for the federal holiday.

“Only option” seems oxymoronic, but it’s OK with a qualifier: “It was the only option that avoided war.” That qualifier could be implied.

Capitalize formal titles before names but not after. Job descriptions stay lower case: “… said Judge Traver to attorney Biegler .”

Dictionaries accept the BUSSES WELCOME sign I saw on the highway, but it strikes me as inviting a kiss. Use “buses” unless you seek a buss.

“Native American” is widely accepted, but so is “Indian.” In Canada, “First Nations” is common. Go by a person’s preference if possible.

“Eponymous” refers to a person whose name is used to describe something, not the thing being described: Hamlet, the eponymous tragic hero.

Avoid the jargon “practicing gays.” “Noncelibate” is a better choice if distinction is needed.

Columbias in N. America include at least four cities, a river, a district and (with “British”) a province. In S. America, it’s Colombia.

It celebrates all fathers, but Father’s Day keeps the apostrophe inside as a singular possessive, as does Mother’s Day and New Year’s Day.

Spanish is the main language for about half the South American population. The other half are in Brazil, where the language is Portuguese.

“Biweekly” means every two weeks. But for 150+ years, it also has been used to mean twice weekly. Avoid confusion and say what you mean.

I won’t refuse one either way, but “doughnut” is the preferred spelling. The main dictionaries accept the more-popular “donut” variant.

If you are “anxious” for the weekend, you are not just eager, but also worried. “Anxious” implies unease. Think “anxiety” and “angst.”

You “lay” something. But, annoyingly, “lay” also is the past tense of “lie.” Lay an object down. Lie down. He lay down. (It was laid down.)

Brits cringe when I’ve “gotten” something, but it’s a fine word here in America. “Gotten” suggests acquisition; “got” suggests ownership.

“Currently” usually adds nothing; use it rarely and thoughtfully for clarity. Never write the horribly verbose “at this point in time.”

“Lose” is a four-letter verb. “Loose” as a verb means “let go.” As an adjective, it means “not tight.” Want something less tight: Loosen it.

A modern canard says “like” excludes what is being compared while “such as” includes it. Sadly, it has become the rule.

There is precedent for “like” meaning something is an example of a larger class, a definition the OED and others are comfortable with.

“I’m glad I have a friend like Mike” means I’m glad a Mike-like person (in this case, Mike) is my friend. But some folks disagree.

“Such as” is preferred in formal writing to cite examples, and we are stuck with such rules as this until the overly persnickety cave in.

But don’t change “like” to “such as” when you are comparing two things. “He wants to be an editor like Mike,” not “such as” Mike.

And keep in mind that “like” can be ambiguous, “such as” can provide clarity. There is sound reasoning at the heart of the rule.

It’s easy to add an apostrophe when making “it” possessive, so slow down and read contractions as full words. “It’s” is “it is.”

“Bloody” has long been thought profane, falsely linked in the 1700s to “Christ’s blood.” It began as (and is becoming) a harmless intensive.

To “peruse” is to read, usually with care. It often is used (perhaps with ironic origin) to mean “skim,” but sticklers might take issue.

The abbreviation i.e. (id est) means “that is.” Don’t confuse it with e.g. (exempli gratia), which means “for example.” Follow with a comma.

If you or your company files Chapter 11, you stay afloat but reorganize with the court and debtors. Chapter 7 bankruptcy brings liquidation.

“Noisome” is derived from the word “annoy” and has nothing to do with noise. It means “offensive” or “bad-smelling.”

“Latino” collectively refers to either sex. Judge Sonia Sotomayor is a “Latina.” She is the first “Latino” on the high court.

Don’t call two quarters of GDP decline a “traditional” definition of “recession.” The recent convention often is rejected as simplistic.

A “recession” ends when a decline hits bottom. It doesn’t mean the economy has recovered, says the National Bureau of Economic Research.

The NBER defines “recession” as “significant decline in economic activity lasting more than a few months.” It runs from a peak to a trough.

Judge Sotomayor called herself “Hispanic” in 1998, “Latina” in 2002. AP, NYT, WP using “Hispanic.” AP Stylebook now says use either one.

“Hispanic” and “Latino/Latina” are a matter of personal choice and publication style. “Latino” seems to be gaining. If you can, be specific.

I grew up saying “kitty-corner,” but the correct term remains, for now, “cater-cornered.” “Cater” means a four in cards or dice.

To “clamor” is to make a lot of noise. To “clamber” is to awkwardly climb or move (probably from “clamb,” an old past tense of “climb”).

No matter what you hear on the BBC, the rule is “an” before a vowel *sound.* Sound is key. Silent h: “an honor.” Sounded h: “a historic.

Some redundancies to avoid: “one-year anniversary,” “a new record,” “true fact,” “ATM machine,” “free gifts,” “totally destroyed.”

“Discrete” means distinct or separate (the island of Crete is a discrete part of Greece). “Discreet” means quietly careful or judicious.

The Associated Press switched in January to “cesarean” section, following most dictionaries and popular preference, including among doctors.

“Premier” means top or foremost, including a head of government. Add an “e” (as in “entertainment”) and “premiere” is the first performance.

“Defuse” means disable a bomb. It can be used figuratively: to defuse a tense situation. “Diffuse” as a verb means to spread out or scatter.

You can be both interested and “disinterested.” “Disinterested” means impartial. Don’t care? Then you are “uninterested.”

Patricia O’Conner (“Origins of the Specious”) has me convinced that all grammar errors have a historical basis. Now what do I tweet about?

“Voila” is the correct spelling for the French exclamation pronounced “vwa-lah.” Don’t confuse it with the instrument spelled “viola.”

The “vapors” is an archaic medical condition popular with hypochondriacs. And “fuming” can mean showing your anger.

Avoid using “fumes” to mean “vapor.” Fumes usually are smelly or toxic vapors. Vapor is any diffused matter floating in air, such as steam.

“Toxin” originally referred to an organic infection that produces a toxic response. If it is not organic, “poison” is the broader term.

APA, MLA and Chicago prefer serial commas (which precede the conjunction at the end of a series). AP hates them, but says clarity dictates.

They may run together in speech if you eat ham and jam and spam a lot, but always write “a lot” as two words. The verb “allot” is unrelated.

Don’t fear “effect” as a verb. To “affect” is to influence; to “effect” is to bring about. “Effect” something and you can take the credit.

The AP Stylebook now has a “Twitter” entry. A message is a “Tweet,” it says, but the verb form can be either “to Twitter” or “to Tweet.”

The difference between “epidemic” and “pandemic” is a matter of scale. Epidemics are limited to a population and usually don’t last long.

“Who” is the proper pronoun for the subject of a sentence. If your pronoun is not doing anything, use “whom.” “Who” does stuff to “whom.”

“Endemic” is not a synonym for “widespread.” A disease, condition or species is “endemic” if it’s found in a particular population or area.

Speeches sometimes are said to be given at a podium, but a podium is a raised platform. The stand for microphone and notes is a “lectern.”

“Irregardless” is a nonsensical variant, formed by adding the negative prefix “ir'” to “regardless,” which already has a negative suffix.

There is no need to write the awkward “’til.” Till is a perfectly good word that means the same thing. “Until” is best for most writing.

Capital is a city, money or uppercase letter. Capitol (think of the shape of a dome) is a building, and it’s capitalized if it’s specific.

One who “begs the question” is pretending that restating a question answers it. Consider “raises the question:

“None” usually is singular, but not always. To test, substitute “not one of.” None of us is going because none of us agree.

“Nonplussed” means surprised and confused and unable to continue, not the opposite. Break it down: non (not) and plus (more). Enough said.

“I’ve written five different Tweets.” Is “different” needed? It is acceptable, but if it doesn’t add clarity or emphasis, leave it off.

The subjunctive is struggling, especially in casual writing. But “if I was” instead of “if I were” still brings scorn from sticklers.

Call in the cavalry if you seek a charge by horse-borne soldiers. The hill of Jesus’ crucifixion was Calvary, with a capital C.

Underway or under way? Both are common, so style dictates. Some sources call one word a variant; rarely is two words considered wrong.

Contemplating “a while” awhile ago. Remember: Two words if it follows “in” or “for” — that’s when it acts as a noun. “Awhile” is an adverb.

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